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Small Business Resource Guide

Quick: How many small businesses operate in this country?
If your guess was close to the 21.5 million total that the U.S. Small Business Administration estimates, you also may know that that figure is up 50 percent over 1982.
Small businesses provide about 67 percent of first-job opportunities and are responsible for most of the initial on-the-job training in basic skills, according to the SBA.
As the U.S. economy adds 25 million jobs by 2005, the small-business sector will contribute some 68 percent, with a concentration in the service industries.
To recognize the impact and potential of small firms on the nation’s economic well-being and quality of life, President Bill Clinton has declared the week of April 30 to May 5 Small Business Week.
Yet, despite impressive numbers, the reality remains that most small firms struggle mightily to survive, especially in the early years. Though the number of corporations begun reached a record 706,540 in 1993, most will not make it to their 10th–or even fifth–anniversaries.
To help more local firms beat the odds, the Rochester Business Journal has compiled a resource package to help small-firm owners and managers increase their chances of surviving and prospering.
Our main story–“Eleven steps to creating a winning enterprise,” beginning on page 34–details the key areas that every young enterprise must address. Other stories–choosing a legal entity and writing a business plan, for example–elaborate on the need for organized, thorough thinking and tapping the advice of professionals.
Our Resources section, beginning on page 40, lists dozens of not-for-profit organizations that offer advice to small firms, plus SBA publications and videos on business topics.
This special issue, co-sponsored by Preferred Care, will go to our regular subscribers and will be available on newsstands and at the local offices of the state Department of Economic Development and SUNY College at Brockport’s Small Business Development Center.
To order more newsprint copies of this Resource Guide, call 546-8303.

Page 34 — Eleven steps to creating a winning enterprise
Though following these 11 steps will not guarantee success, they will put your business well on the way to viability

Page 38 — To incorporate or not to incorporate, by Ann Fox
When weighing which legal form to adopt–sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation–consider the benefits and limitations of each.

Page 38 — Trade-show trade-offs, by Bruce Beardsley
Exhibiting at trade shows long has been an effective tool for large companies with products to display. But for small, limited-budget firms or consultants, does the investment pay off?

Page 39 — The all-important business plan
Developing a clear, detailed outline of your business’ goals is as essential for obtaining financing as for keeping the firm on the right track amid the chaos of the marketplace. Simply thinking through the planning process and committing goals to paper are valuable activities for any business owner.

Page 39 — Assessing your business personality
No amount of planning, attention to detail or killer marketing ideas will compensate for a bad fit between owner and business. If you cannot honestly describe yourself as take-charge, hardworking and full of initiative, any business you start likely will not survive.

Page 40 — Resources

Page 41 — SBA publications
(Editor: Rose Ericson; cover design: Patricia A. Beckmann)

Small Business Resource Guide

Many people fantasize at one time or another about going into business and being their own boss. Now a growing number of Americans are turning fantasy into reality.
In an economic climate that encourages and nurtures entrepreneurship, hundreds of thousands of corporate executives, MBAs, retirees and individuals interested in a career change are striking out on their own. And as owners of small businesses, they are creating a dynamic force that is revolutionizing business as we have known it in this country.
The total number of non-farm businesses, including self-employed individuals and part-time entrepreneurs, reached 20 million in 1990–up 54 percent since 1980. And the U.S. Small Business Administration reports that small businesses account for 58 percent of the private U.S. work force and 40 percent of the gross national product. Moreover, a National Science Foundation analysis reveals that small business has been a more prolific source of innovation per research-and-development dollar than large business.
This new age of the entrepreneur is also an age of opportunity. For example, a substantial number of today’s small-business operators are women. By 1987, they controlled 30 percent of the nation’s 13.7 million small firms and generated more than $65 billion annually in gross receipts. During the 1980s, woman-owned companies increased at twice the rate of male-operated start-ups.
But success is far from automatic. Starting a small business is risky, and the odds against succeeding are daunting. According to the SBA, only 50 percent of small businesses survive their first year of operation. By the 10th year, 80 percent to 90 percent have failed.
These figures are not intended to scare you but rather to prepare you for the sometimes-rocky path that lies ahead. Underestimating the difficulties inherent in running a business is one of the biggest obstacles entrepreneurs face.
However, chances of surviving and prospering are greatly increased if you are patient and willing to work hard, and you take all the necessary steps. The following 11 areas, gathered from a variety of experts, are the most important ones for new business owners to consider. Not heeding them is often the reason entrepreneurs spend so much time climbing out of the holes they have dug rather than scaling the ladder of success.

1. Know yourself.
Not everyone is cut out to be an entrepreneur. It takes a special talent. Some owners of small businesses have it, and some do not. Before investing time, energy, money and a piece of your heart, it is important to do some serious self-analysis. Answer such questions as: Am I prepared to work hard and make sacrifices? Am I self-disciplined? Do I have management ability? Am I experienced enough in this field? What do I want out of life? Are my goals realistic and attainable?
Studies have shown that successful entrepreneurs share certain characteristics including an overpowering need to achieve. Entrepreneurs tend to be more creative and innovative than the average person. They are self-confident and not easily defeated. They also thrive in a challenging environment and have a tremendous need to be in control. They are risk takers. They welcome responsibility, and are willing and able to make decisions. In addition, they are able to learn from their mistakes.
Successful entrepreneurs possess an optimistic and cooperative outlook, and they usually get along well with people. They have well-developed oral and written communication skills, and overall technical knowledge of the goods and services they produce.
Moreover, successful entrepreneurs are patient and able to wait out the sometimes slow beginnings of a business. They devote countless hours to their endeavor often at the expense of family and friends. They will continue to work despite headaches or other ailments that might keep others away from the job.
According to Rod Beck, chief of administration for California’s Office of the Small Business Advocate, entrepreneurs share another trait.
“In addition to desiring independence at all costs,” he says, “they have observed what other business owners are doing, and feel convinced they can do it better.”
Take a good look. Do those traits describe you? “Know yourself and be willing to work 60 hours a week. Starting a business is one of life’s biggest commitments,” advises Roy Nordman, director of the engineering business services practice for the San Francisco office of Coopers & Lybrand.
Small-business owner Nancy Wansick of Wansick Graphics echoes those sentiments: “My business has become my whole life. Day becomes night, and work has become play.”
One thing is obvious: You have to love your work. And if you choose a business that meshes with your personality, those extra hours spent will not be as difficult. The key is to identify what you enjoy doing the most and then to find a business opportunity that makes use of your skills and interests.

2. Plan your business.
After deciding to start or expand your business, it is crucial to take the necessary time to formulate a realistic path for yourself. In an increasingly competitive world where businesses face an uphill battle, planning helps minimize the risks involved.
A Harvard University study showed that the amount of time spent in planning a business is directly related to its success. Owners spending six months or less ended up with an 80 percent failure rate. Those who took more than a year to plan ended up with an 80 percent success rate.
Many new entrepreneurs do not realize the business plan is perhaps the most crucial document to develop during the planning stage because it tells a complete story about their business. A well-prepared and comprehensive business plan, updated every six months, serves several purposes:
It forces you to take an objective, critical and unemotional look at your business project the way an outsider would. It assists you in setting goals, and in determining how workable and desirable your venture is.
It is an important sales tool for raising capital from outside investors. These people are primarily interested in the future profitability and value of an enterprise. They need to be convinced that they will earn a substantial return on their investment within a few years.
It is a starting point for a more detailed operational plan, and becomes an important management tool for monitoring the growth and performance of the firm and charting future directions.
It is a must when applying for a loan. To the lender, the plan reveals your evaluation of your venture’s feasibility and reflects your management abilities.
Business plans are not all the same. They vary depending on the type and size of the enterprise. However, all plans should be organized into distinct sections. (See related story on page 13.) If you need assistance in preparing your business plan, professionals with the Service Corps of Retired Executives will counsel you free of charge. Or you may decide to hire a consultant.
However, even if you turn to outside help, you should be completely familiar with every detail of your plan, because at some point you will have to meet with prospective lenders. Your knowledge and understanding of the plan will influence their decision.
In summary, the importance of a written plan is not the document itself, but rather the process and thinking involved in developing it. Many owners will argue that the marketplace changes too fast for a business plan to be useful, or that they are too busy running the venture to prepare one. While many owners are reluctant to invest the necessary effort to commit the details to paper, the time is well-spent if the business prospers as a result.
One final word of advice from Marty Rabkin, the principal of VTR Associates, a California firm that consults with business start-ups: “After preparing your plan, have at least two other individuals review it. They should understand lending and investments and be able to give you constructive suggestions. That way, if your plan needs work, you can revise it before submitting it to the lenders.”

3. Finance for the long term.
One of the major causes of small-business failure is inadequate setup financing.
“The most hazardous period for a new business is the first two years, due to insufficient working capital,” says Bernard Schnitzer, a SCORE counselor.
Before you open for business, it is critical to determine how much cash you will need. Many over-eager entrepreneurs start operations without adequate capital to sustain them and their business until profits begin to roll in–which is typically three to six months. They have only enough money for a few months’ rent, some equipment and minimum inventory.
Many experts advise having at least a 12-month financial cushion to handle all business and personal expenses. This will allow one to remain self-sufficient and minimize the risks should one’s endeavor prove unprofitable.
Prior to starting out, carefully review your financial needs. Do not forget to add funds that will be necessary for personal and living expenses.
Equally important is the preparation of a cash budget. This analysis forces the entrepreneur to think ahead by estimating the firm’s income and expenses. It also will warn you about possible deficits that could require additional funding. By carefully projecting your financial needs, you can avoid some of the crises associated with a shortage of funds.
While new business owners will not have actuals for various budget categories, they can approximate operating expenses with a little investigation. For example, talking to business owners can help pinpoint tax, utility and trash removal charges, while a real estate agent can project rental costs. In addition, most professions, industries and trades have organizations that can provide averages for both income and expenses.
Once you have estimated your present and future financial needs, you may realize you need to seek outside financing. Besides partners, family and friends, a number of sources are available to the small-business owner. For the vast majority of businesses, loan financing comes from the private sector through banks, savings and loans, and other financial-services institutions.
The government is a secondary source of assistance, primarily through the U.S. Small Business Administration’s Loan Guarantee Program. Other financing alternatives include local government programs, and venture capitalists: wealthy individuals and firms that make their money as investors.
Some entrepreneurs borrow against their life insurance policies.
Before filling out a loan request–no matter who the prospective lender is–find out what documentation is required. Finally, borrow carefully; do not overextend yourself.
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Small Business Resource Guide

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4. Balance your books.
Experts agree that a comprehensive and understandable bookkeeping system is one of the most basic requirements of a successful business. While very few entrepreneurs enjoy the number-crunching aspects of running an operation, a simple system can be maintained with minimal time and effort. Good records will provide the critical information you need to determine how your business is functioning. They will also assist you in making better short- and long-term decisions.
One small-business owner realized that vision, optimism and a willingness to work hard were key to the success of her venture, but also discovered that attention to the balance sheets was equally vital.
“It took me a while to learn it,” she explains, “but you really have to run a business by the numbers.” And one cannot run a business by the numbers without an adequate accounting system to use as a management tool.
To begin with, your books should include accurate and thorough statements of sales and operating results, fixed and variable costs, profit and loss, inventory levels, and credit and collection totals. Also needed are tax returns and reports to regulatory agencies, and comparisons of current data with prior years’ operating results as well as budgeted totals.
In addition, one should track daily cash receipts and credit sales, expenses, inventory received and employee expenses, including pay and deductions.
A good record-keeping system should be easy to understand, reliable, accurate, consistent and designed to provide information on a timely basis.
There are two methods of accounting: cash and accrual. Using the cash method, income is reported the same year it is received, and expenses are deducted the same year they are paid. With accrual accounting, income is reported the same year it is earned, even if it has not been received. In most cases, the method one chooses for accounting also will be used for tax purposes.
Due to its simplicity, cash-basis accounting is generally used by sole proprietorships and partnerships unless inventory is involved, in which case the Internal Revenue Service mandates use of the accrual method. Most corporations use the accrual method.
To determine which system is preferable, or required, one should consult with a financial adviser or public accountant.
To ensure that the accounting gets done accurately, consider these options:
— One’s own ledger books–if the business owner is motivated and can spend the necessary time to keep one’s finances current
— An accounting system book, available at stationery stores, in which everything is set up by ledgers. All one has to do is enter the numbers.
— Accounting software, which is becoming more and more popular because of the way it can increase both the speed and accuracy of the accounting process
— Bookkeeping services, which provide a wide range of services to help with accounting needs
— A part-time bookkeeper who can maintain the company’s journals and ledgers by recording all financial transactions
— An accountant, who can set up an easy-to-follow bookkeeping system specifically designed for a business, and help prepare financial statements and tax returns

5. Practice good management.
According to the SBA, poor management is the greatest single cause of business failure. Management of a business encompasses a number of activities: organizing, planning, controlling, directing and communicating. Most business failures are not the result of bad economic times; rather, they stem from improper management. The cardinal rule of small-business management is to know exactly where you stand at all times.
Some of the more common mistakes managers make include:
— hiring the wrong people
— inadequately training employees
— trying to do too much
— misusing time, and
— absentee ownership.
In a large company, a bad month in one division can be offset by good performance in other divisions. In a small firm, however, there is nothing else on which to fall back, so a bad week can be fatal. Managing a small company means staying on top of key aspects of the operation so one can react instantly and decisively when problems arise.
However, bad management is not limited to poor economic periods. It can happen even when the climate is positive. Some management consultants who work with small businesses confirm that overexpanding, hiring weak personnel and being overconfident are frequent management mistakes that occur when times are good.
Along with those is the inability to handle growth.
“If the business is successful, it takes on a life of its own,” one owner says. “You become a “situation manager’ rather just a people or business manager. Suddenly, you are trying to balance opportunities, investments and energy.”
Whether times are good or bad, the successful manager is one who remains calm and confident and who turns adversity into opportunity. In addition to seizing short-term opportunities, the ability to plan for the long term is also crucial. This involves being aware of subtle shifts such as increased competition, a change in area demographics, products that no longer meet customer needs and inadequate technology.
This continuing analysis and planning process allows the owner to re-evaluate what the firm is doing, what prospects can be developed, and what actions need to be taken to strengthen the company position over time.
In addition, a successful manager also must be a good leader. Many experts say leadership is a form of behavior that includes persuading, inducing, guiding and motivating. They believe a well-rounded leader is a master of certain skills that can create a climate that encourages productivity, and directs and controls employees’ activities.
Very often, leadership style reflects an individual’s personality. However, what works well with one group or individual may not work as well with the next. As a result, good leadership requires a flexible approach that is based on the people involved and the situation at hand.
Advises one small-business owner: “Surround yourself with competent people, then train them and learn to delegate.” And when you do delegate, keep the following tips in mind:
— Do not continuously check up on the employees while they are working.
— Believe what they say.
— Avoid having to know every single detail at all times.
— Be sure you know enough to stay on top of things.
“Delegation is an issue of trust,” another owner says. “But it cuts both ways. You can’t get someone to trust you unless you trust them, too.”
A final note of advice: Not all owners are necessarily good managers. For one who feels he or she lacks the necessary managerial or leadership skills, the wisest move one can make is to bring someone on board who can better fulfill this function in the interest of the business overall.

6. Know your market.
Marketing is the complex process of creating customers for one’s products or services. Finding and keeping customers is a way of thinking–of doing business–that is close to the heart of every entrepreneur. It involves knowing and reaching out to customers, listening very carefully to their needs and preferences–and complaints–and acting to service them better and better every time.
A sound marketing plan is key to the success of any venture. It helps one manage the process of creating customers, including the action steps needed to make the plan work. Before developing a plan, however, one must do one’s homework. Effective marketing, planning and promotion begin with gathering factual information about the marketplace. Visit the local library, talk to customers, study the advertising of other businesses in the community–including that of the competition–and consult with related industry associations.
Answers to the following series of questions constitute critical components of any marketing plan:
A. Marketing overview
— What business are you in?
— What do you sell?
— What are your target markets?
— What are your marketing goals for next year (including sales and profit goals)?
— What obstacles might keep you from achieving these goals?
— What is your marketing budget?
B. Products and services
— What are the benefits of your product/service?
— How do you differ from the competition? What makes you special?
— What product/service provides the biggest contribution to and creates the biggest drain on your overhead and profits?
C. Customers and prospects
— Who are your current customers? (include age, gender, income level and geographic locale)
— What are their buying habits?
— How do your customers learn about your products/services? (newspaper advertising, direct mail, word of mouth, Yellow Pages)
— Why do your customers buy your product/services?
— What qualities do your customers value most? (selection, convenience, service, reliability, availability, affordability)
— What qualities do your customers like least? Can they be adjusted to serve your customers better?
— Who are your best customers?
— Are there prospective customers who need your product or service but whom you currently are not reaching?
— What is your market share? Is it expanding, shrinking or stable? Is it changing in other ways?
D. Competitive analysis
— Who are your competitors?
— What do your competitors do better than you?
— What do you do better than your competitors?
— How do you rank relative to the competition?
E. Price, location and sales practices
— How do you establish prices?
— How do your prices compare to those of your competitors?
— What are the advantages and disadvantages of your location? (traffic flow, complementary businesses, convenient parking)
— What are your sales practices? (including follow-up after the sale and sales training)
— How do your sales practices compare to those of your competitors?
F. Strengths and weaknesses
— What are the internal and external strengths of your business? (skilled personnel, outstanding technology, expanding market)
— What are the internal and external weaknesses of your business? (lack of sales support materials, aggressive competition)
The final component in your marketing plan should be your overall promotional objectives: to communicate your message, to create an awareness of your product or service, to motivate customers to buy and to increase sales.
Defining objectives makes it easier to design a successful promotional campaign, choose the methods that will be most effective, and keep that campaign on the right track.
G. Advertising and promotion
–What is your overall advertising and promotion budget?
— What marketing tools can you implement within this budget?
— What are your advertising and promotional objectives? (penetrate specialized markets, sell more to present customers, change your firm’s image)
— What do you currently do to promote your business?
— What previously used promotional methods have been most effective?
— How does the competition promote itself?
— How will you evaluate the effectiveness of your advertising and promotional efforts?
H. Long-term strategic marketing
— What marketing problems have you discovered so far?
— How do you plan to solve these problems?
— Are the goals stated under “Marketing Overview” still valid? If not, what are your new goals?
— How do you plan to achieve these goals?
The essential element underlying effective marketing efforts is targeting; that is, making sure your message reaches the people you want to attract to your business’ products or services. Today’s marketplace is too fragmented and diffused to reach everyone without the expenditure of vast amounts of money, which small businesses certainly cannot afford nor do they need to spend.
A long-term entrepreneur affirms the importance of targeting: “Before, we always tried to get everybody and their brother to buy from us. Needless to say, that approach didn’t work. Then we developed a marketing plan that zeroed in on a specific geographic area, and it brought in all the business we hoped for.”
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7. Hire the right people.
Employees are one of the most valuable assets your business can have. Their cooperation, enthusiasm and well-being can make the difference between a mediocre and an outstanding business. Untrained, unmotivated employees can doom a business just as surely as strong competition or economic downturns. It is absolutely imperative that you carefully plan the staffing needs of your company.
Two of the most critical points to be considered in terms of employees are productivity and trust. Productivity equates to how much is produced for every dollar you spend on labor. Too many owners think about what they pay in wages, rather than how much useful work their dollars will buy.
The second key point is trust. One basic reason that otherwise-successful businesses remain small is that their owners cannot bring themselves to trust other people enough to give them authority and power. Three secrets to trust are believing in yourself, taking the necessary time to recruit and hire diligently, and making responsibility a part of every job even the most menial. If you do these three things, your employees will continually grow in their abilities, and will learn to handle major responsibilities more readily.
The hiring process should not be haphazard. Before you begin, carefully analyze your business needs and write down the specific duties for each new employee you think is required. Also determine what you are willing to pay in salary and benefits. Going through this process enables you to clarify and prioritize the skills, experience and qualities you are seeking.
Be careful not to “overspecify” the position. By imposing too many specifications, you might limit the type and number of resumes you receive. Whenever possible, remove any qualifications that are not absolutely necessary to perform the job, and ask yourself where you would compromise if you had to. All too often entrepreneurs hire people who have skills identical to their own, rather than those with complementary skills. This type of redundancy can be particularly detrimental to small operations.
Also be sure to determine whether you actually need to hire any new full-time employees. There may be more effective and efficient ways to get the job done, such as buying a computer software program to help with accounting functions, or contracting out for phone answering or janitorial needs. Use of freelancers and/or independent contractors is another possibility, as is hiring short-term temporary workers.
If you have not already formulated a personnel policy, now is the time. You need to consider the number of hours to be worked each week, the number of days per week, holiday work and the time and method for overtime pay; fringe benefits; vacation and sick leave; time off for personal needs; training; retirement; a grievance procedure; performance review and promotion; and termination.
There are a number of sources to which you can turn for job candidates: classified advertising in newspapers and magazines, private employment agencies, temporary agencies (for short-notice or seasonal needs), state employment agencies, labor unions, schools, community organizations, former employees, or friends and family.
Once you have narrowed the field of candidates, it is time to set up interviews, which are critical to the selection process. Ineffective or inexperienced interviewers are usually marked by four main failures: not spending enough time analyzing the job they are trying to fill; failing to ask the right questions to determine a candidate’s strengths and weaknesses; talking too much during the interviews; and overly trusting their gut reaction rather than evaluating candidates objectively against the criteria they have established for the job.
Keep in mind that any person’s potential for success in a given job is a function of three factors. The first is one’s ability (the “able to” factor). The second is one’s job knowledge (the “how to” factor), resulting from a candidate’s education, training and experience. Do not be reluctant to ask candidates what they have done, and how well they did it. Ask about their successes and the problems they have faced. Ask for references and call them. Verify education and training as well.
The third factor is one’s motivation (the “want to” component). Motivation is based on what an employee gets from performing the job. And while salary is important to performance, it is not everything. The best employees are those who enjoy what they do. Your task in hiring is to find people who want and like to do the job for which you are hiring them.
When interviewing, it is also important to know the laws related to job discrimination. According to one expert, there are two simple rules that determine whether or not to ask a question: (1) Is it job-related? If it is not, do not ask. (2) Is the question presented only to a specific type of candidate? If it is, do not ask.
Once you have selected your new employee, the next step is to create a good working relationship. Demonstrating open-mindedness, patience, good communication skills and a willingness to listen plays a vital role in the development of such relationships. Another tried-and-true method is offering positive reinforcement of desired behavior, from a simple “thank you” for a job well done, to asking for employees’ advice or opinion, or giving them a choice of work assignments or time off with pay.
One key to motivating and retaining good employees is to be a good manager yourself. The people at the top of an organization set the tone. Be sensitive to your employees’ needs, and ask them to articulate their goals. How do they mesh with the organization’s goals? Learn where you can be flexible in order to accommodate employees and enhance their job satisfaction. Create an environment where every person feels he or she is working toward full potential.
Although you are careful to hire the right people for the job, and are working hard to form rewarding relationships with your employees, you still may encounter problems. That is the nature of business. Often the ones you experience mirror those of society in general.
One problem currently facing employers is drug and alcohol abuse, which is costing American business about $100 billion a year in lost production. While many large companies have set up in-house programs to help employees with substance abuse, such programs are too expensive for the small-business owner.
You can begin by writing a policy statement concerning drug and alcohol use at work. The policy should state plainly that drug and alcohol use on the job is forbidden, and that violation of this policy is grounds for disciplinary action, including dismissal.
To aid troubled employees directly, you may want to investigate outside employee assistance programs, which offer workers a place they can go for help for personal problems. These programs provide confidential counseling and can refer employees to specialists, if needed. The cost is usually several dollars a month per employee.
If no such provider is available in the area, you may want to join with other local companies to create an EAP together. In some cases, outside employee assistance programs encourage more people to seek help and minimize the role the company plays in resolving employees’ personal problems.
Once you have found a suitable EAP, make it an attractive alternative. Stress that you are implementing the program to keep people on the job, not as an excuse to fire them.
The success of your business depends largely on your employees. And similar to a good marriage or friendship, the relationship between you and your employees should be a two-way street. Communication, trust and commitment are critical. If you want those relationships to last a long time, you must be willing to work hard to make them grow.

8. Choose the right location.
Choosing the location for your business is as crucial as deciding what product or service you will provide. Stories abound of entrepreneurs who selected or purchased a site without thorough investigation, only to discover later that the neighborhood was deteriorating, road or traffic patterns were being changed, the previous owner did not have clear title to the land, the site was polluted, or a competitor was moving in next door. It is extremely important not to rush the selection process and, if necessary, to use the services of a specialist in this area to assist you.
Your choice of a location will depend on your type of business, as well as who and where your customers are. For example, retail stores and restaurants have to be situated very near to their customers. Other considerations include the volume of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, parking availability, public transportation, the compatibility of neighboring businesses and the building itself.
Many business areas, from neighborhood strip centers–ventures clustered on the same street–to shopping malls, have anchor stores. These are large retailers such as department stores and supermarkets that attract a large, loyal customer base through reputation and heavy advertising. Smaller establishments often do well being located near these high-volume operations.
Service businesses operating out of storefronts that depend on foot or drive- by traffic, such as dry cleaners and shoe repair shops, should be situated where customers are going to pass them on a regular basis. Other service operations that are more personal in nature such as beauty parlors, health clubs or automobile repair shops can cultivate a base of steady clients who are willing to go out of their way. Also, whenever services are performed at the client’s home or place of work, such as extermination and carpet cleaning, the company site is relatively unimportant.
If establishing a manufacturing, wholesaling or industrial supply business, make sure the site allows room for future expansion. Also consider taking an option for additional space. Choose a location that is relatively convenient for your employees, and accessible by car or public transportation. Many plants in out-of-the-way locations have difficulty retaining employees.
If your operation has heavy electrical power requirements, verify that these services are available since the line work needed to provide additional electrical service can be costly. Also be sure to check the availability of freight, express and parcel delivery services so you will not have to pick up and deliver materials. If your facility is above or below the ground floor, investigate the condition and load capacity of the freight elevator. This is especially important if the total weight of all your equipment and materials is excessive.
In addition to these industry-specific considerations, consider other basic items when selecting any new location. If you are renting, try to talk with former tenants and ask why they moved. Meet with other shopkeepers and learn as much as you can about the area and its customers. Be careful if you see numerous unoccupied buildings for rent or sale, as this could signal that the area is undergoing an economic downturn.
Also pay close attention to the zoning, building, fire, electrical and plumbing codes affecting locations in which you are interested.
Have both your lawyer and insurance agent review any lease before signing it. Key points include:
— How the rent is determined.
— Whether it is high or low compared with other rents in the area.
— Whether utilities and equipment are adequate.
— Who is responsible for repairs.
— Estimated cost of any renovations.
— Who owns any improvements made by the tenant.
— The amount of insurance held by the landlord and the degree of coverage required of the tenant.
— Lease renewal and termination provisions.
— The tenant’s right to sublet.
— Options for expansion and purchase.
— Property use restrictions (zoning).
A final question is whether to rent or buy the facility you are considering. Base your decision on these factors:
— Are your requirements going to change rapidly over the next few years? If so, renting is probably preferable.
— Is capital in short supply? Can you use your available money better if it is not tied up in a building? What return can you expect from your funds if they were to be invested elsewhere?
— Will the building be easy to resell?
— What kind of tax incentives and other kinds of assistance are available from the state or local community?
Before embarking on a search for the perfect location, outline your present and future needs and then find a site that best meets them. If you require assistance, a business real estate broker can often be helpful. In addition, your local chamber of commerce will be able to answer any questions about the community.

9. Commit to quality and customer service.
Quality may well be the biggest competitive weapon of the 20th century and beyond. At today’s prices, people do not want cars that are not perfect, toothpaste tubes that leak, houses made with inferior materials, stores with rude employees, or airlines and restaurants that provide poor service. And most customers do not bother to complain; they simply take their business to other companies.
Owners and managers of small, medium and large businesses alike need to understand that quality is more than a buzzword. It has become imperative. The benefits to companies that embrace it are numerous and far-reaching from fewer product defects to less wasted management time, lower costs and higher customer retention rates.
The dictionary defines quality as “superiority of kind; degree or grade of excellence.” As the owner of a business, your first concern should be building quality into your employees, or assisting them to continually improve. Only after the “humanware” is securely in place should other aspects of the business be considered.
Normally, top-level managers are concerned with the lofty concept of improvement, while lower-level employees spend their entire day following instructions. In this hierarchical environment, a valuable resource is wasted. Many “worker bees” harbor a wealth of knowledge, information and insight about the processes for which they are responsible, the customers with whom they deal, and product/service enhancements that could make a difference.
Tied to the whole issue of quality is customer service. This means understanding what product and service attributes your customers value, why they value them, and how your company measures up against those attributes. It is no longer safe to assume that just because your customer complaints are low, the majority of your deliveries are on time, and your price is competitive that your customers perceive you as a quality- and service-focused organization.
One way to help your employees focus on customers and their needs is to have them view one another as internal customers. This means realizing that for whatever jobs they perform, other employees are affected and affect them from the chef in the kitchen to the person in the adjoining office, the stock boy, or the next person down an assembly line. Focusing on your internal customers is key to any successful quality/customer service program, as is the mind set of never being satisfied even when you think things are perfect.
The bottom line in customer service is that it is only as good as the customer says it is. When employees start focusing on how to better meet the needs of their customers, they become more sensitive to the processes they perform and how to improve and/or change them to achieve the results the customer desires.
Building quality into a company also involves changing processes within the organization itself. It entails managers ceding some power and responsibility to fellow workers who can do the most about improving the business operations. It means giving employees the authority to satisfy customers’ needs. Finally, it includes eliminating unnecessary steps in the approval processes that impede production, delivery or the processing itself. Basically, quality means pushing the decision-making down into the ranks to the people who can make the biggest difference.
This entire scenario understandably creates risk and uncertainty for the manager who has not been trained or mentored to encourage such employee behavior. The CEO as coach/trainer must ensure that managers and employees do not become paralyzed by a desire for perfection and certainty of accountability. Training people at all levels of the business is key to the success of this approach.
This approach to operating your business can improve morale and productivity by making workers’ jobs more meaningful, reducing costly supervision and inspections, and providing more time for strategic planning. In addition, a reduction of unnecessary processing stages and layers of approval diminishes cycle time, lessens the possibility of errors, and allows you to deliver products or services faster.
It makes far more sense to build in quality during development and production, rather than after completion when making changes is costly and time-consuming.
Partnering also helps eliminate the adversarial relationships that frequently develop. Weaving quality and customer service into every fiber of the company can be the key to improved competitiveness and growth, and will provide that long-term edge in distinguishing your company or brand from the competition.
(Continued on next page)

Small Business Resource Guide

(Continued from previous page)

10. Do not be afraid to ask for help.
Turning to outside specialists to help avoid or solve problems is standard operating procedure for large companies. Yet with the exception of accountants and attorneys, many small-business owners avoid using consultants, and thereby forgo valuable and timely advice.
The problem many entrepreneurs face is how to afford professional help at the point when their need is greatest: usually when their financial resources are most limited. But advice need not be expensive. In addition to professional consultants, sources of assistance include chambers of commerce, trade associations, specialty newsletters and magazines, and business libraries. Moreover, chambers of commerce and many financial institutions publish how-to books for a small fee or just for the asking.
Most important, consultants say, is knowing what kind of help you need, and then getting it early enough.
“It’s a shame more small businesses don’t tap into the resource of a professional to help them realize their full potential,” notes Howard Cohen, economist and chartered accountant in Tiburon, Calif.
Urges Dale Moreseman, owner of Industrial Graphic Arts in Concord, Calif.: “Gather advice from all available sources, particularly business and trade associations. When you have questions or problems outside your area of expertise, seek professional help.”
Experts also recommend the appointment of an active outside board of directors or advisers with whom you meet regularly. A board can provide objectivity, install business performance accountability, and establish a valuable method of monitoring progress. Boards are most valuable when they contain directors carefully selected for expertise and skills that complement the given business.
The resources do not end there. Free counseling and workshops are also available through small-business development centers, the U.S. Small Business Administration and SCORE, its volunteer arm. SCORE is staffed by experts in a wide variety of fields who have had successful careers of their own. SCORE counselors appreciate what small business means and want to share their experience and knowledge with any entrepreneur who needs help.

11. Tap into technology, the key to future success.
Among the many subjects small-business owners must tackle, perhaps none is more daunting than technology a word that encompasses a full spectrum of equipment that can radically alter a company’s efficiency and productivity.
On the one hand, technology is seen by the uninitiated as a complex array of options that are difficult enough to understand, much less to master. Those at the other end of the spectrum imbue technology with the magical ability to revitalize a company, cut costs and resolve problems ranging from personnel to product quality. Most people fall within these two extremes, having embraced technology to some extent, but still not tapping its full potential.
Just as each business is different, so is the degree to which automation makes sense. Certainly the needs of a home-based or several-person venture are not the same as those of a larger firm that relies heavily on the inputting of massive amounts of data or extensive inventory tracking.
Yet no matter what an enterprise’s size or scope, the technology tools available on the market today–ranging from phone systems to fax machines, computer hardware and software, paging systems and cellular phones–can help it run immeasurably more smoothly. These tools also help to maximize today’s most valuable commodity time.
You should keep one key point in mind when deciding to what extent to automate your business: No single answer is right for everyone. Before making any investment, identify your endeavor’s specific needs and tailor the solution accordingly. Too much time and money rest on the outcome to undertake this process lightly, or without enough research. And, while problems likely will arise at some point be they technical difficulties or internal resistance to change the long-term benefits far outweigh any short-term obstacles. Using technology to increase the capabilities of your business is key to enhancing your competitive position in today’s marketplace.
According to Lynn Brady, vice president and chief financial officer of finance and information systems at Pacific Bell Directory: “Many small firms that do not learn to implement the best technology, particularly in the areas of computers and telecommunications, will see larger companies gain competitive advantages that will allow them to lower costs, adjust prices and take a larger share of the product or service market. Even a 2 or 3 percent cost advantage is sufficient to guarantee market erosion.”
Reprinted with permission from Nynex Yellow Pages’ Small Business Success, Volume V, published by Nynex Yellow Pages in partnership with the U.S. Small Business Administration. For additional copies of Small Business Success, call 800-848-8000.

Small Business Resource Guide

Each offers pros and cons that should be carefully weighed by would-be small-business people, preferably using the advice of an attorney and an accountant.
Though each of the three forms of organization has specific characteristics, they “are not black and white. There are many shades of gray,” says Clifford Smith Jr., Clary professor of finance and economics at the University of Rochester’s William E. Simon Graduate School of Business Administration.
One example: a new kind of organization that burst upon the business scene in New York State last fall. This hot new structure, known as a limited liability company, combines some characteristics of a partnership with those of a corporation.
Limited liability partnerships for professionals became legal in New York at the same time.
Johnson decided to go solo, the most popular choice of small start-ups, says Gerry VanStrydonck, tax partner with Price Waterhouse.
Such a structure is simple to organize, which means low start-up costs. It gives an individual owner the advantage of running things as she chooses, without criticism from anybody. She gets to keep the profits after taxes, simply adding the income to any other earnings on her personal 1040 income tax form and filling out a Schedule C. Of course, losses also are hers alone.
Sole proprietorship income is subject to one level of taxation, while income from some corporations is taxed twice, VanStrydonck says. The corporation itself–a legal entity–pays one layer of taxes, and its owners, or shareholders, pay another layer of taxes on the dividends they receive.
Ruth Balkin, an owner of Balkin Library Management Service, who also started her business as a sole proprietorship, attests to the ease of setting up and using that kind of structure. Moreover, she says, a solo business is easier to dissolve.
But sole proprietorships face special problems: They have more difficulty attracting capital because the risk to investors is great. They wonder what will happen to the business if the owner becomes sick or disabled.
For Johnson, the biggest disadvantage eventually became concern about legal liability. She felt especially vulnerable because of the nature of her business. The firm provides contracts for courier deliveries; provides driver service to area airports, medical appointments and nightspots; and relocates vehicles to and from places like Florida and Arizona for people who want their own cars somewhere else, but do not want to drive them there.
“Knock on wood, I’ve never had a (liability) problem,” she says. “But these days, things are so wild.”
About five years after she founded the business, Johnson changed its form to an S corporation and its name to Drivers Unlimited of Rochester Inc., thereby protecting her personal assets.
That corporate shield, VanStrydonck says, is the reason most people incorporate.
Yes, the corporation could go bankrupt. But, usually, assets are distributed rather than being kept in a corporation, and few assets would be lost. The principal could turn around, surrender the keys to the business and start over across the street, he says.
Moreover, in an S corporation like Johnson’s, pass-through tax treatment eliminates a layer of taxation imposed on C corporations. The latter are mostly large companies.
However, S corporations have several operational rules that limit their applicability for entrepreneurs. VanStrydonck points out that they cannot have more than 35 shareholders, all must be U.S. citizens and all must be individuals. An individual retirement account, for example, cannot hold stock in an S corporation.
Like Johnson, Balkin eventually switched her business structure. She dissolved her sole proprietorship and formed a 60-40 partnership with her sister, Susan Rubinstein.
The sisters manage, organize and maintain professional libraries for clients such as law and accounting firms. They also do research and training.
Balkin says her sister had expertise that she did not have, thus broadening the management base. The arrangement eliminates loneliness and gives her “somebody to bounce ideas off,” she says.
What’s more, the work load can be shared. If one of the owners is sick or away, the other can carry on.
Partnerships are easier to set up, operate and dissolve than corporations, and they retain the sole-proprietorship advantage of single taxation.
But they have disadvantages. Divided authority can present a problem. Personality conflicts can arise. What if one partner wants to automate the business and the other does not?
They also engender unlimited liability. In fact, liability risk is increased because one partner is responsible for any moves the other partners make.
The new LLCs provide limited liability to all members, generally relieving them of responsibility for its obligations, and eliminate one layer of taxation. In these respects, it is like an S corporation. However, the LLC is not subject to S corporation restrictions.
LLCs and their cousins, limited liability partnerships, “are a hot topic these days,” VanStrydonck says. “There are lots of seminars.”
His own firm, Price Waterhouse, has converted from a partnership to an LLP. “You will see more and more law and accounting firms with LLP after their names,” he says.
How would one choose between an LLP and an LLC? “A lawyer may find reasons,” VanStrydonck says.
New businesses will want to consider LLPs and LLCs, he says. “They will be the favored kind of operation.”
However, there are two disadvantages. Some states do not recognize them, which may present uncertainty for New York firms that do business there. Additionally, the tax cost of converting an existing corporation may make it preferable to remain as is.
“You should have legal advice,” he says. “If you don’t do it right, you may not have what you expect.”
(Ann Fox is a Rochester-area free-lance writer.)

Small Business Resource Guide

Many people mistakenly assume that a successful business plan should dazzle their readers with complicated technical jargon, complex corporate structures and fierce non-disclosure pledges.
Yet the truth is that this type of approach actually can alienate potential investors, who may be neither technically oriented nor knowledgeable about a particular industry.
The purpose of a well-prepared business plan is not to show how sophisticated you are as a writer, but how practical and attainable your goals are.
Whether you’re trying to raise $20,000 or $2 million, you should address certain crucial areas and convince investors your business is a good risk.
Following is a general approach that you can use as a foundation. However, you should tailor your plan to meet the specific circumstances of your business, emphasizing its strengths and addressing the challenges

1. Summary. The summary should concisely describe the key elements of the business plan. For the firm seeking financing, the summary should convince the lender or venture capitalist that it is worthwhile to review the plan in detail. The summary should briefly cover at least the following:
— Name of the business;
— Business location and floor plan description;
— Discussion of the product, market and competition;
— Expertise of the management team;
— Summary of financial projections;
— Amount of financial assistance requested, if applicable;
— Form of and purpose for the financial assistance, if applicable;
— Purpose for undertaking the project, if financial assistance is sought; and
— Business goals.
2. The company. This section provides background information on the company and usually includes:
–A general description of the business, including the product or service;
— Historical development of the business, including: Name, date and place (state) of formation; legal structure (proprietorship, partnership, corporation); significant changes (including dates) in ownership, structure, new products or lines, and acquisitions; subsidiaries and degree of ownership, including minority interests; and principals and the roles they played in the formation of the company.
3. The product or service
Describe the present or planned product or service lines, including:
–Relative importance of each product or service including sales projections, if possible;
–Product evaluation (use, quality, performance);
–Comparison to competitors’ products or services and competitive advantages over the other producers; and
–Demand for product or service, and factors affecting demand other than price.
4. The project
If financing is sought for a specific project, describe the project, the purpose for which it is undertaken, its cost and the amount, and the form and use of the financial assistance.
5. Management
–Organizational chart;
–Key individuals, including supervisory personnel with special value to the organization: Responsibilities; personal resumes describing skills and experience as they relate to activities of the business; present salaries, including other compensation such as stock options and bonuses; and planned staff additions.
–Other employees: Number of employees at year-end, total payroll expenses for each of the previous five years, if applicable, broken down by wages and benefits; method of compensation; departmental or divisional breakdown of work force; and planned staff additions.
6. Ownership
–Names, addresses and business affiliations of principal holders of subject’s common stock and other types of equity securities, including details on holdings;
–Degree to which principal holders are involved in management;
–Principal non-management holders;
–Names of board of directors, areas of expertise and role of board when business is operational; and
–Amount of stock currently authorized and issued.
7. Marketing strategy/market analysis
–Description of the industry, including: Industry outlook; principal markets (commercial/ industrial, consumer, government, international); industry size, current as well as anticipated in the next 10 years (explain sources of projections); and major characteristics of the industry/effects of major social, economic, technological or regulatory trends on the industry.
–Description of major customers. Names, locations, products or services sold to each; percentage of annual sales volume for each customer over previous five years, if applicable; and duration and condition of contracts in place.
–Description of market and its major segments. Include: principal market participants and their performance; target market; customer requirements and ways of filling those requirements; and buying habits of customers and impact on customers using your product or service.
–Description of competition: companies with which your business competes and how your business compares with these companies. This section is a more detailed narrative than that contained in the description of the product or service above.
–Description of prospective customers. Include reaction to your firm and any of its products or services they have seen or tested.
–Description of firm’s marketing activities. Include: Overall marketing strategy; pricing policy; method of selling, distributing and servicing the product; and geographic penetration, field product support, advertising, public relations and promotions, and priorities among these activities.
–Description of selling activities. Include the method for identifying potential customers and how and in what order you will contact the relevant decision makers. Also describe your sales effort: sales channels and terms, number of salespersons, number of sales contacts, anticipated time, initial order size–and estimated sales and market share.
8. Technology
–Describe the technical status of your product–idea stage, development stage, prototype–and the relevant activities, milestones and other steps necessary to bring the product into production.
–Present patent or copyright position, if applicable. Include how much is patented and how much can be patented (how comprehensive and effective the patents or copyrights will be). Include a list of patents, copyrights, licenses or statements of proprietary interest in the product or product line.
–Describe new technologies that may become practical in the next five years that may affect the product.
–Describe new products (derived from first-generation products) that the firm plans to develop to meet changing needs.
–Describe regulatory or approval requirements and status, and discuss any other technical and legal considerations that may be relevant to the technological development of the product.
–Describe research and development efforts and plans.
9. Production/operating plan
Explain how the firm will perform production or delivery of service. Describe in terms of: Physical facilities: owned or leased, size and location, expansion capacities, types and quantities of equipment needed. Include a facilities plan and description of planned capital improvements, if any, and timetable for those improvements; suppliers: names and locations, length of lead time required, usual terms of purchase, contracts (amounts, duration and condition) and subcontractors; labor supply (current and planned): number of employees, unionization, stability (seasonal and cyclical) and fringe benefits; technologies/skills required to develop and manufacture the products; cost breakdown for materials, labor and manufacturing overhead for each product, plus cost-versus-volume curves for each product or service; manufacturing process.
–Describe production or operating advantages of the firm; discuss whether they are expected to continue.
–Specify standard product costs at different volume levels.
–Present a schedule of work for the next one to two years.
10. Financial
–Auditor: name, address;
–Legal counsel: name, address;
–Banker: name, location, contact officer;
–Controls: cost system and budgets used;
–Describe cash requirements, now and over the next five years, and how these funds will be used;
–Amount to be raised from debt and amount from equity;
–Plans to “go public”–relate this to future value and liquidity of investments;
–Financial statements and projections for the next five years: profit-and-loss or income statements by month until break-even point, and then by quarter; balance sheets as of the end of each year; cash budget and cash-flow projections; capital budgets for equipment and other capital acquisitions; manufacturing/shipping plan.
If financing is sought, most lenders and venture capitalists require:
–A funding request indicating the desired financing, capitalization, use of funds and future financing;
–Financial statements for the past three years, if applicable;
–Current financial statements;
–Monthly cash-flow financial projection, including the proposed financing, for two years;
–Projected balance sheets, income statement and statement of changes in financial position for two years including the proposed financing.
Reprinted with permission from Nynex Yellow Pages’ Small Business Success, Volume V, published by Nynex Yellow Pages in partnership with the U.S. Small Business Administration.

Small Business Resource Guide

ADA Collaborative
Rochester Center for Independent Living
758 South Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 271-8558
Contact: Tim Weider

American Heart Association
Genesee Valley Region
797 Elmwood Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 461-5291
Contact: Colleen Romeo

Association for the Blind and Visually Impaired/Goodwill Industries of Greater Rochester Inc.
Catering Services
422 S. Clinton Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 232-6707
Contact: Bill Stapert, ext. 268

Association for the Blind and Visually Impaired/Goodwill Industries of Greater Rochester Inc.
Vocational Services (Employee Pool)
422 S. Clinton Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 232-6707
Contact: Jordu Kelly, ext. 299

The Business Exchange
215 Tremont St., Door No. 4
Rochester, N.Y. 14608
Fax: 325-4864
Contact: Bonnie Flagg

Canandaigua Chamber of Commerce
70 S. Main St., Ste. 330
Canandaigua, N.Y. 14424
Fax: 394-4546
Contact: Charlene Leigh

Career Development Services
706 East Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14607-2105
Fax: 244-7115
Contact: Sharon Melville

City of Rochester
Bureau of Human Services
30 Church St., Room 222B
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Contact: Susan Keefe

City of Rochester Economic
Development Department
Industrial and Commercial Assistance
30 Church St., Room 5A
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Contact: Phil Banks

City of Rochester
Technical and Financial Assistance/Commercial
30 Church St., Room 5A
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Contact: Phil Banks

City School District
Work Place Education Program
Family Learning Center
30 Hart St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14605
Contact: Chris Schwenker

County of Monroe Development and Planning
1 W. Main St., Ste. 600
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Contact: Rocco DiGiovanni

County of Monroe Industrial Development Agency
1 W. Main St., Ste. 600
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Contact: Rocco DiGiovanni

Finger Lakes Community College
Institute for Business, Industry and Professional Development
4340 Lakeshore Drive
Canandaigua, N.Y. 14424
Fax: 396-1743
Contact: Allen O’Neill

Genesee Community College Center for Business and Community Education
1 College Road
Batavia, N.Y. 14020
343-0055, ext. 6347
Fax: 343-4541
Contact: Lisa Giallella

Genesee County Industrial Development Agency
1 Mill St.
Batavia, N.Y. 14020
Contact: Glenn Cooke

Genesee/Finger Lakes Regional Planning Council
143 State St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Contact: Howard Payne

Genesee Livingston Orleans Wyoming Private Industry Council
1 Mill St.
Batavia, N.Y. 14020
Fax: 343-0848
Contact: Betty Powers

Greater Rochester Metro Chamber of Commerce Inc.
Small Business Council
55 St. Paul St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Contact: Catherine Mahar

Greece Chamber of Commerce
1100 Long Pond Road, Ste. 206
Rochester, N.Y. 14626-1127
Fax: 227-7275
Contact: Ralph DeStephano

The Health Association
Employee Assistance Program
1 Mt. Hope Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 423-9056
Contact: Richard Briggs

High Technology of Rochester
10 Carlson Road
Rochester, N.Y. 14610
Fax: 224-8119
Contact: Larry Albertson

Human Services Bureau
30 Church St., Room 222B
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Contact: Susan Keefe

Industrial Technology Extension Service
10 Carlson Road
Rochester, N.Y. 14610
Fax: 224-8119
Contact: Joseph Holroyd

Learning Disabilities Association of the Genesee Valley Inc.
259 Monroe Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14607
Fax: 263-2461
Contact: Lisa Bayer

Livingston County Economic Development Office
6 Court St., Room 306
Geneseo, N.Y. 14454
Contact: Patrick Rountree

Matt Talbot Ministries Inc.
514 Oxford St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14607
Contact: Gregory Doyle

Minority Business Development Center
350 North St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14605
Contact: Beverly Jackson

Minority and Women Enterprise Development Center
215 Tremont St., Door No. 4
Rochester, N.Y. 14608
Fax: 325-4864
Contact: Bonnie Flagg

Monroe #2-Orleans Board of Cooperative Educational Services
Adult and Continuing Education
3589 Big Ridge Road
Spencerport, N.Y. 14559
Fax: 352-2758
Contact: Lisa Garlock

New York State Department of Economic Development
Finger Lakes Regional Office
111 East Ave., Ste. 220
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Fax: 325-6505
Contact: Susan Lawrence

New York State Department of Labor
130 W. Main St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Fax: 258-8859
Contact: Sharon VanKempen

New York State Energy Office
2 Empire State Plaza, Ste. 1801
Albany, N.Y. 12223-1252
Contact: Gary Sheffer

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority
2 Empire State Plaza, Ste. 1901
Albany, N.Y. 12223-1253
518-465-6251, ext. 250
Fax: 518-473-4549
Contact: Mary Jean Frank

Postal Business Center
P.O. Box 22908
1335 Jefferson Road
Rochester, N.Y. 14692-2908
Fax: 272-5979
Contact: Donna Economides

Prevention Partners
315 Alexander St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
262-2300, ext. 16
Fax: 262-2935
Contact: Becky McCorry

Regional Council on Aging
79 N. Clinton Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Fax: 454-3660
Contact: Fran Weisberg

Regional Council on Aging
GROW Employment Services
79 N. Clinton Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Fax: 454-3660
Contact: Peg Steffan

Rochester Area Committee for Employer Support o the Guard and Reserve
76 Whitestone Lane
Rochester, N.Y. 14618
Fax: 423-2788
Contact: James Vogel

Rochester Area Employment Network
46 Mt. Hope Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 232-4637
Contact: Wendy Quarles

Rochester Business Opportunities Corp.
55 St. Paul St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Contact: Diana Walsh

Rochester/Finger Lakes Regional Development Corp.
55 St. Paul St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Fax: 454-6634
Contact: Ellen Scalzo

Rochester Institute of Technology
Center for Integrated Manufacturing Studies
111 Lomb Memorial Drive
Rochester, N.Y. 14623-5608
Fax: 475-5250
Contact: Stan Konieczny

Rochester Rehabilitation Center Inc.
Employment Connection
46 Mt. Hope Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 232-4637
Contact: Wendy Quarles

Rural Opportunities Inc.
339 East Ave., Suite 401
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
546-6325, ext. 388
Fax: 546-7337
Contact: Joan Dallas

St. John Fisher College
Professional Development Office
3690 East Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14618
Fax: 385-8344
Contact: Gail Bober

Science Linkages in the Community
657 East Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14607
Fax: 256-3176
Contact: Elizabeth Brauer

Small Business Development Center
SUNY College at Brockport
74 N. Main St.
Brockport, N.Y. 14420
Fax: 637-2102
Contact: William Bordeau

Small Business Development Center
SUNY College at Geneseo
1 College Circle
Geneseo, N.Y. 14454
Fax: 245-5430
Contact: Charles VanArsdale

Small Business Development Center
Rochester Office
14 Franklin St., Ste. 200
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Contact: Anita Levinson

The Technical Assistance Program
30 Church St.
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Fax: 428-6042
Contact: Jessie Lazeroff

U.S. Department of Commerce
International Trade Administration
111 East Ave., Ste. 220
Rochester, N.Y. 14604
Fax: 325-6505
Contact: James Mariano

U.S. Small Business Administration
100 State St., Room 410
Rochester, N.Y. 14614
Fax: 263-3146
National Answer Desk: 800-827-5722
Contact: Peter Flihan

Veterans Outreach Center Inc.
Employment Posting Program
459 South Ave.
Rochester, N.Y. 14620
Fax: 546-5234
Contact: Marina Chianello

Wayne Economic Development Corp.
16 William St.
Lyons, N.Y. 14489
Fax: 315-946-5918
Contact: Barbara Harper

Small Business Resource Guide

SBA Publications
— Emerging Business Series
“Transferring Management/Family Businesses” (EB01/$3)
“Marketing Strategies for Growing Businesses” (EB02/$3)
“Management Issues for Growing Businesses” (EB03/$3)
“Human Resource Management for Growing Businesses” (EB04/$3)
“Audit Checklist for Growing Businesses” (EB05/$3)
“Strategic Planning for Growing Businesses” (EB06/$3)
“Financial Management for Growing Businesses” (EB07/$3)
Financial Management
“ABCs of Borrowing” (FM01/$2)
“Elementos Basicos Para Pedir Dinero Prestado” (FM01s/$2)
“Understanding Cash Flow” (FM04/$2)
“A Venture Capital Primer for Small Business” (FM05/$2)
“Budgeting in a Small Service Firm” (FM08/$2)
“Record-Keeping in a Small Business” (FM10/$2)
“Pricing Your Products and Services Profitably” (FM13/$2)
“Financing for Small Business” (FM14/ $2)
Management and Planning
“Problems in Managing a Family-Owned Business” (MP03/$2)
“Business Plan for Small Manufacturers” (MP04/$2)
“Business Plan for Small Construction Firms” (MP05/$2)
“Planning and Goal Setting for Small Business” (MP06/$2)
“Business Plan for Retailers” (MP09/ $2)
“Business Plan for Small Service Firms” (MP11/$2)
“Checklist for Going into Business” (MP12/$2)
“Lista Para Comenzar Su Negocio” (MP12s/$2)
“How to Get Started with a Small Business Computer” (MP14/$2)
“Business Plan for Home-Based Business” (MP15/$2)
“How to Buy or Sell a Business” (MP16/$2)
“Developing a Strategic Business Plan” (MP21/$2)
“Inventory Management” (MP22/$2)
“Selecting the Legal Structure forYour Business”’ (MP25/$2)
“Evaluating Franchise Opportunities” (MP26/$2)
“Small Business Risk Management Guide” (MP28/$2)
“Child Day-Care Services” (MP30/$3)
“Handbook for Small Business” (MP31/$3)
“How to Write a Business Plan” (MP32/ $3)
— Marketing
“Creative Selling: The Competitive Edge” (MT01/$2)
“Marketing for Small Business: An Overview” (MT02/$2)
“Researching Your Market” (MT08/$2)
“Selling by Mail Order” (MT09/$2)
“Advertising” (MT11/$2)
— Products/Ideas/Inventions
“Ideas into Dollars” (PI01/$2)
“Avoiding Patent, Trademark and Copyright Problems” (PI02/$2)
— Personnel Management
“Employees: How to Find and Pay Them” (PM02/$2)
“U.S. Government Purchasing and Sales Directory” (CM0001/$23)
— Videotapes
(A workbook is included with each of the following VHS videotapes.)
“Marketing: Winning Customers with a Workable Plan” (VT01/$30)
“The Business Plan: Your Road Map to Success” (VT02/$30)
“Promotion: Solving the Puzzle” (VT03/$39)
“Home-Based Business: A Winning Blueprint” (VT04/$39)
“Basics of Exporting” (VT05/$39)
To order, list the code and minimum donation of each title desired, along with your name, address, zip code and daytime phone number with area code. Indicate whether you own/manage a small business or are planning to start one.
Mail your check, made payable to the U.S. Small Business Administration, to SBA Publications, P.O. Box 30, Denver, CO. 80201-0030. For customer service, call 202-653-6654. Please include $1 per order for shipping and handling, and allow four to six weeks for delivery.


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